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Mizo hnam dan (Customary Law) leh Mizo Hmeichhiate

Hmingthanzuali
University of Hyderabad

Tunlai Khawvel hmun tina inhnialna leh titi ti tamtu ber pakhat chu hmeichhe dinhmun chungchang hi a ni awm e. Khawvel chanchinbu hrang hrang kan thlir pawhin hmeichhe dinhmun chungchang khelna hmuh tur a awm deuh zel tawh a. Tunhnai lawk atangin India ramah ngei pawh hmeichhe issue hi a lian ve ta hle a, parliament-ah meuh pawh putluh a ni ta zut mai. Mizoramah pawh MHIP te mai bakah, social welfare, Human rights Law Network leh pawl hrang hrang ten Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun bih chianna kawngah hma an la chho ve mek zel a ni. Sorkar laipui atangin hmeichhe humhalhna dan hrang hrang ngaih pawimawh a ni chho telh telh a, Mizote pawh in heng dan te hi kan hmelhriat a tul ve telh telh a. Amaherawhchu, Mizoram a hmeichhe pawl din a nih a tanga, an buaipui ve tawh Mizo Hnam Dan (Customary Law) a hmeichhe dinhmun siamthatna mumal tak sawitur ala awm lo hi ngaihtuah tham tak a ni. Mizo hnam dan thar ber (April 6, 2005) a, Mizo hmeichhe dinhmun thenkhatte i han bih chiang teh ang.


Mizo Hnam Dan (Customary Law) hi hmanlai huna Lusei Dan bik zeding kalchho zel, pi/puten tawngka hmanga an lo vawn nun tlat thin, Mizo hnam dan hi Kum 1928 ah Lushai Hills Bawrhsap N.E Parry chuan ziakin a lo dah tan a. Tun hnuah Mizoram sorkarin he dan enfiah tur hian committee member a ruat a, a kimchang tawk lo lai apiang te thuam that belh zel a ni. He Mizo hnam danah hian Mizo hmeichhe chungchang tarlanna sawi tham fe kan nei ve a. Heng zingah hian rokhawm Chungchang te, Hmeichhe Man leh Sawn Man te hi hmeichhe dinhmun tilang deuh bik a sawi theih turte chu an ni.


Rokhawm Chungchang: 
 Mizo hi pa te lam atanga thlah kal zel (patrilineal) kan nih avangin ro luah danah pawh mipa lam atanga kal thin a ni. Chhungkaw pa berin roneitu nihna a chang a, chhungkaw pa ber a thihin nu in pa dinhmun a chan chhunzawm ve leh a. (Mizo Hnam Dan Bung 12 Chang 178). Dan bu Bung 12, chang 180 na kan en chuan roluah theitu indawt dan kal zelah hmeichhia chu a hnuhnung bera dah an ni. Roneitu in fapa nei lova fanu chauh a nei a nih chuan fanuten ro an in sem ve thei chauh a (Chang 181 (3)), hemi tih lovah chuan dan angin hmeichhiain chhungkuaah chan an nei lo hle. Ngaihdan tlanglawn ber pakhatah chuan hmeichhia chu pasal nei a inchhung atanga chhuak tur a nih avangin chhungkuaah kan dah pawimawh lem lo va, midang ta turah kan dah mai thin. Kan fanu/farnu te hian eng ang mi nge pasal an neih dawn? Eng ang chhungkuaah nge an lawi dawn tih te leh pasal an neih hnu a, an chungah eng harsatna nge lo thleng thei tih te kan ngaihtuah zui tawh lem lo niin a lang. Chang 181 (2) tlar tawpah chuan fanu, inhrang chang lova la awm mek, nu leh pa inchhunga thawkchhuaktu chuan chanvo a nei ngei tur a ni tih a ni a. A lehlamah chuan thawhchhuah nei lo, inchhunga hmeichhe la awm tan chuan hma hun a thim hle, pasal nei lo tur a nih phei chuan mahni inchhung lumah ngei chan nei lovin a awm kumkhua dawn niin a lang. Heng avang hian hmeichhiate hi rokhawm chungchangah ngaihsak loh hulhual phei zawng an ni lo.

Fapa tlum ber chu farnute leh unau chhawmdawltu tur a ngaih an nih thin vangin an unaute chan leh hnih chang tura tih an ni. (Chang 181 (2)) Hei hian farnu te laka mipa mawhphurhna kan dah pawimawhzia a tilang leh thung a. Amaherawhchu khawvel a thang danglam chho zel a, kan nun zia a in thlak danglam tial tialin khawsak a lo hautak ve tulh tulh a, mipa tam tak tan chuan farnute enkawl rigawt pawh hautakna chen a awm ve tan mek a. Tin, nupui fanau nei tawh an nih phei chuan hmeichhe tan inthlahrunna a tam duhin, farnute leh nupuite inkarah harsatna hial a thleng thei a ni. Chhungkaw dinhmun a inang vek loh angin ro inhlanchhawn tur kan neih dan pawh a inang lo hle ngei ang. Amaherawhchu hmeichhiate hmalam hun tur ngun taka thlir pui a, chhungkaw ro neih dan a zira an harsatna tlem tala phuhruk ve thei tura ro sem zai thiam a tul hle tawh awm e. Hmeichhe harsatna sutkian hi hmeichhiate tan chauh hlawkna a ni lova, mipate tan hlei hlei buaina tam tak tikiangtu a ni tih kan hriat a tha hle.



Hmeichhe Man:
Khawvel hmun hrang hrang leh India ram chhung ngeiah pawh, tlema hnam hnufual deuh tih lohah chuan inneih nikhua a hmeichhe man pek thin hi hriat tur a vang hle a. India ram hmun thenkhat a thuamchhawm rip tak takte nen khaikhin phei chuan a inpersan hle awm e. Kan pi leh pute hunah kha chuan hmeichhe man hi mipa tan thil hautak tak zet mai, thenkhat phei chuan hun rei tak chhung an tuak hial thin a ni. Tunlaia kan hman dan nen chuan a inhautak hleih hle. Chutihrual chuan hmanlai khan hmeichhe dinhmun kha an man avang khan a tha tak tak em tih te kan chhut ngun a ngai hle. Tawngkamah pawh, ‘Batah hmeichhe man bat a nuam ber’ tih kan pi pu te khan an lo hmang thin a, hmeichhe man kha a sang em em a, mahse thenkhat erawh chuan an pe tla nghal vek chuang si lo te hian hmeichhia an ngaihdan a tarlang. Khawvel hmun hrang hrang kan en chuan man a lei mihring chu sal chauh hi an ni mai awm e. Man a lei an nih tawh chuan a leitu ta a ni tawh a, a leitu thu thu a awm tawh tur an ni. Mi tamtak chuan hei hi hre ranin, hmeichhia chu man a lei tawh an nih avangin duh ang anga sawp kual vel tur emaw an tih phah ta hial a ni.


Hnam Dan bu bung 3-ah nupui/pasal inneih chungchangah chuan hmeichhe man tarlan a ni a. Tun laia manbi atana hman ber chu Manpui leh Mantang, Cheng zali leh sawmhnih (Rs 420/-) a ni. Hetia a lan dan chuan hmeichhia chu Rs 420/- hu vel chauh an ni dawn tihna a ang hle mai. Chang 37-ah chuan man leh mual hi mihring te inleina a ni lova, nupui pasal innei turte leh an chhungte ve ve, chhungkhata insuihkawmna tura inremna entirna a ni tih a tarlang a. Mahse ngun taka han chhut chian in sum Rs 420/- lek avanga chhungkua hi insuihkhawm tur em ni kan nih? Tin, chhung leh khat te ah kan han sem darh leh vek a, mi pakhatah Rs 10/Rs 20 vel lek sem lo pawh hian chhungkua a insiam theih tho lo maw? A then phei chuan kan man let aia tam kan sem vak vak bawk nen, kan hnam dan kan la chhawm zel emaw kan tih rualin a bak kan kal leh si ang tih a hlauhawm ta hle.


He tih lai hian mi thenkhat chuan hmeichhe man tihsan an lo duh ve thung a. Mahse, tuna kan hman aia nasa harsatna a thlen thei zawk lo maw? Tin, man tihsan duh ho hian an man ngiat zat ang hi an fapate nupui manah pe dawn ta se an tlin vek kher ang em? An dinhmun a ti tha tak tak chuang dawn em ni? Man sang tak tak kan phut dawn a nih chuan tuna kan dan hman laiin a entir tum piah lamah hmeichhiate nihna dik tak paih bovin an hlutna pawh bungrua leh ran hralh mai mai theih nen kan khaikhin mai mai zawk lo maw?

Mihring hlutna hi pawisa nena tehkhin chi a ni lo hrim hrim mai. India rama tribal khawtlang thenkhat a hmeichhe man an la pek thinna hmuna research an neihnaah chuan hmeichhe man pekna khawtlanga hmeichhiate hian thuamchhawm rip (dowry) an pekna thin khawtlanga hmeichhiate aiin dinhmun tha zawk an chang chuang hauh lo tih tarlan a ni. (Sociology of Bride price and Dowry; Shalini Randeria & Leela Visaria in Dowry and Inheritance; Srimati Basu (ed) Kali for Women 2005). Baptist pastor hmasa Rev Dr.H.S Luaia chuan ti hian a sawi a, ‘Mizo hmeichhiate hian man an neih chhung chuan an dinhmun hi siamthat a ni tak tak lovang, lei an ni tawh a, an duh hun hunah mipa in an ma thei tawh a, sal ang mai an ni ringawt. Man hi bo ngei se ka ti’ a ti hial a ni. Kan Mizo upa berte zing a mi pawhin hetiang hiala a sawi a nih chuan hmeichhe man chungchang hi ngaihtuah tham a ni. Engpawhnise, man neih kan duh lo emaw, tihsan kan duh emaw, kan hnam dan zah hi kan mawhphurna a ni si a. Amaherawhchu, tuna kan dan hman lai hi kan hnam tihdan/kalphung (tradition) vawnhim nana kan la hman mek lai hian a lei-a-lei a kawk lo ti fo thin mah ila, tawngkamah ‘In fanu In hralh dawn em ni?’ etc tih te kan hmang leh lawi si. Hei mai ni lovin, man nei an nih mai bakah, an man a lo tlawm bawk nen, mipa thenkhat lahin hmeichhiate enhniamna hmanruaah an lo hmang ve leh fo mai bawk si. Kan dan hman lai a a inziah dan hi kan zawm tak tak chuang lova, hmanlai rilru kan la paih tak tak thei rih lo niin a lang.



Sawn man:
 Mizo hnam dan bu bung 8-na chang 107 ah sawn chungchang ka hmu a. Hmeichhiain a pasal ni lo, midang laka a fa hrin hi sawn tih a ni. Mipain chutianga fa a neih chuan sawnthlak a ni. Miin sawn a thlak chuan kan Mizo hnam danah sawn man a pe tur a ni a, sawn man chu Rs 40/- a ni. Hei hi lei chawi leh fa tlanna a ni a, sawn man ba a awm ngai lo. Tin, sawn thlaktuin sawn man a pek duh loh chuan pa nihna a hauh thei lova, fa chu nu ta a lo ni tawh a ni. Amaherawhchu, sawn man chu thin loh va pek loh anih chuan, sawn thlaktu chu pa a nihna a bo thei chuang lo (Chang 107, (1) (2) (3)). A thenin sawn man tisan an duh laiin thenkhat ngaihdanah erawh sawn man tihsan hian thil tha lo zawk thlen a, thenkhat tan phei chuan sumdawnna hmanrua hial thei turah an lo thlir bawk. Tin, chang 107 (4) ah chuan hmeichhiain sawn paina laka sawn a pai leh chuan sawn nawn a ni a, sawn nawnin man a nei lova, sawn thumnaah erawh chuan sawn man a awm leh thin.

Sawn chu phir pawh nise sawn man a pung chuang lo a ni. Hetia a landan chuan thenkhat tan chuan a hmeichhia a lo sihhnip deuh a nih chuan mi pakhata sawn thlak nawn fo pawh a awl viau ang. Tam tak chuan sawn man han pek mai hi kan duh tawk mai a, fa enkawlna lam erawh an ngaihtuah zui tawh lem lovin duh hun hunah pa nihna an hauh leh hlur bawk si. Engpawhnise, sawn man Rs 40/- vel lek a kan tlingtla mai mai hi a fel ber em? Mi fa nun kan va tihchhiat sak a, Rs 40/- lek leichawi manah kan pe a, mahse inngaidam tawn tak tak thei hi chu kan vang hle ang. Hun kal zelah lungawilohna kan nei leh tho tho va, hei hian chhungkua pahnih inkarah inhriatthiam lohna hial a thlen thin a ni. Tin, a tuartu hi hmeichhia, a sawn paitu ringawt a ni lova, a fa, kumkhuaa sawn ni tur dinhmun tur hi kan thlir sak a ngai zawk lo maw? Entirnan, Fa enkawl hautak zia chu kan hre vek awm si a, a fa enkawl puitlinnna tur a tlem berah kum 10 chhung tal hi sawnthlaktu hian tum sak ve ta se. Hei hi ram dang hmun tam zawka an lo tih thin dan a ni. Hetiang a dan fel fai zawk kan siam theih chuan tuna kan khawtlanga buaina tam zawk te hi a kiam thei mai awm e.


India ram hmundanga hmeichhiate dinhmun nen han khaikhin chuan Mizo hmeichhiate dinhmun hi tha tawk tak niin a lang. Mahse kan hnam dan (Customary Law) hian engemaw chen min phuar a, kan society a hmeichhiate kan en dan leh an dinhmun dik tak tarlang bertu pakhat a ni bawk. ‘Ram hmasawn chak leh chak lo chu an khawtlanga an hmeichhiate dinhmunah a innghat a ni’, an ti thin. Chuvangin kan hnam dan a hmeichhiate dinhmun pawh hi tunlai kalphung nena inmil tawka kan siamthat deuh chu a hun tawh hle a ni. Hmeichhiate dinhmun leh chanvo siamthat tih hian hmeichhiate tan chauh a ni lova, mi zawng zawng huap, kan ram leh hnam hmasawnna tur atana rahbi pawimawh tak pakhat a ni tih i hre thar leh theuh ang u.

Notes: Published in Daifim, (Magazine, Aizawl) November, 2006.
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